Advanced Laparoscopic Gynecologic Surgery

Laparoscopic Cruroplasty and Fundoplication

What is the future for laparoscopy? Any procedure thought to be impossible to perform by laparoscopy or procedures that, based on conventional wisdom, should not be done laparoscopically are being performed or developed as the reader peruses this article. Technical advances in the endoscopic equipment and development of laparoscopic instruments have allowed for performance of sophisticated procedures with laparoscopic assistance. Appropriate laparoscopic skills allow surgeons to perform these procedures in a fashion nearly identical to an open procedure; however, modifications of historically proven techniques are controversial regarding the expenses generated, equipment necessary to perform the procedure, training necessary, and potential for complications. Has the obituary of laparotomy been written? The benefits of laparoscopically assisted or performed procedures are continuing to be analyzed. LAVH has been touted as a way to reduce the number of abdominal hysterectomies while increasing the number of vaginal hysterectomies. Therefore, indications for LAVH would ideally more resemble indications for abdominal hysterectomy than vaginal hysterectomy; however, LAVH does not seem to have increased the total number of vaginal hysterectomies. Conversely, the number of abdominal hysterectomies seems to be roughly the same, whereas the number of vaginal hysterectomies has decreased and the number of LAVHs has increased. Therefore, surgeons seem to be substituting LAVH for vaginal hysterectomy. Studies comparing laparoscopic Burch procedures and open Burch procedures are just now being reported. Many early reports described procedures that are not classic Burch colposuspensions. These changes make it impossible to assume that overall success and rate of complications are the same. The same can be said for techniques for correction of pelvic organ prolapse. Although laparoscopic performance and laparoscopic assistance are increasing in popularity, most cases are not handled in this way. Clearly, not every surgeon has embraced using the laparoscope to treat patients who would otherwise have undergone abdominal or vaginal surgery.

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